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鑄銅雕塑鑄造的工序有哪些?

發布日期: 2020-06-20 來源:http://www.nakagawakousan.com 點擊: 發布人:mianmao

鑄銅雕塑是中國傳統文化藝術的重要組成部分。鑄銅的歷史非常悠久,且技術成熟。鑄銅的工藝要比鍛銅復雜,藝術創作的復原性好,因此適合成為精細作品的材料,很受藝術家的喜愛,尤其人物雕塑更為常見。但其容易氧化,所以要多注意保養。 

Copper sculpture is an important part of Chinese traditional culture and art. Copper casting has a long history and mature technology. The process of casting copper is more complex than forging copper, and the artistic creation has a good recovery. Therefore, it is suitable to be the material of fine works, and it is very popular with artists, especially the figure sculpture. But it is easy to oxidize, so pay more attention to maintenance.
鑄銅雕塑流程是需要經過11道復雜嚴謹的工序制作而成,這些工序中既有傳統手工藝的痕跡,也有精密鑄造的現代技術精彩所在。
The process of copper casting sculpture needs 11 complex and rigorous processes, which are not only the traces of traditional handicraft, but also the wonderful modern technology of precision casting.
我們在這里向大家介紹的是目前鑄造行業更多用到的鑄造手法,“失蠟鑄造法”亦叫“脫蠟鑄銅”。通常的失蠟鑄造法工藝簡單的概括為如下流程,僅供熱愛鑄造藝術的朋友們參考。
We are here to introduce to you the most commonly used casting technique in the foundry industry, "lost wax casting method" is also called "dewaxing casting copper". The common lost wax casting process is simply summarized as the following process, only for the reference of friends who love casting art.
工藝流程之一:泥塑(每件產品的前身都需要一個目結土的雕塑原型,雕塑都是經過雕塑師在原創設計稿的基礎上反復揣摩、推敲之后進行的再創作,泥塑的造型好壞、神韻的體現與否、意圖的表達呈現直接影響今后的產品好壞,所以,我們的雕塑師都是業界中出類拔萃的高手)
One of the technological processes: clay sculpture (the forerunner of each product needs a sculpture prototype with a focus on earth. Sculpture is re created after repeated speculation and deliberation by the sculptor on the basis of the original design draft. The quality of clay sculpture modeling, the embodiment of charm, and the expression of intention directly affect the quality of future products. Therefore, our sculptors are all outstanding in the industry Excellent master)
工藝流程之二:矽膠開模(矽膠,英文名矽利康Silicon,此化學原料通常用作制作模具,精致度高,哪怕發絲粗細都可體現出來)
Process flow 2: silicon rubber mold opening (silicon rubber, English name silicon, this chemical material is usually used to make mold, with high precision, even hair thickness can be reflected)
工藝流程之三:制作樹脂原型(聚乙烯,又稱波麗Polyethylene。矽膠模具制作完成之后,就可以灌制出雕塑原型的樹脂胚體)
Process flow 3: making resin prototype (polyethylene, also known as Polly polyphylene). After the silicone mold is made, the resin embryo of the sculpture prototype can be made.)
工藝流程之四:修整樹脂胚體(對胚體表面進行的打磨及肌理效果的處理及調整)
Process flow 4: finishing resin embryo (final grinding of embryo surface and treatment and adjustment of texture effect)
工藝流程之五:再制作矽膠模具(將修整好的樹脂胚體再次制作成矽膠模具)
Process flow 5: making silicone mould again (making the finished resin embryo into silicone mould again)
工藝流程之六:制作石蠟原型(再次制作出來的矽膠模具已經很完整及完好了,加熱熔化的石蠟被加壓射入矽膠模具來制造出一個臘胚,此臘胚乃為將生產產品的真實外形復制品)
Process flow 6: making paraffin prototype (the silicone mould made again is complete and intact. The heated and melted paraffin is injected into the silicone mould under pressure to make a wax embryo, which is the real shape replica of the product)
制殼和模具翻制一樣分為兩種:一種是小件或著復雜的我們應該選用精密鑄造,所謂精密制作就是用精致石英砂一層一層吧制作好的蠟型包起來、然后再用高溫把殼里面的石蠟燒凈。另一種就是樹脂砂箱制作,砂箱制作一般適用于簡單的,平面浮雕,大銅錢,銅佛像的背面,等沒有多大工藝的光面。
Shell making and mold turning can be divided into two kinds: one is small parts or complex ones. We should choose precision casting. The so-called precision production is to wrap the wax mold made of fine quartz sand layer by layer, and then burn the paraffin inside the shell with high temperature. The other is resin sand box production. Sand box production is generally applicable to simple, plane relief, large copper coins, the back of the bronze Buddha, and so on.
工藝流程之七:石蠟原型修整(從矽膠模具中灌制并剝離出來的石蠟原型,表面殘留模具的模線及少許的損壞,所以石蠟原型需要再對照流程三的樹脂原型胚體作修整,這是很重要的一環,因此環節會直接影響到產品的造型及表面效果)
Process flow 7: wax prototype repair (the wax prototype poured and peeled from the silicone mold, the mold line remaining on the surface and a little damage, so the wax prototype needs to be repaired against the resin prototype embryo of process 3, which is a very important part, so the link will directly affect the final shape and surface effect of the product)
工藝流程之八:砂模(陶殼)制作(把臘胚數個組成樹串,連續多次重復浸入泥漿(或稱石漿),外層包埋并除濕干燥,將陶殼制成9mm(5-7層)厚,再將此樹串放入高熱140-160℃烘箱或高壓蒸氣鍋內溶解臘胚直到成中空陶殼)
Process flow 8: sand mold (ceramic shell) production (several wax germs are made up of tree strings, which are continuously and repeatedly immersed in mud (or stone slurry), the outer layer is embedded and dehumidified for drying, the ceramic shell is made into 9mm (5-7 layers) thick, and then the tree string is put into a high-temperature oven or high-pressure steam pot to dissolve the wax germs until the hollow ceramic shell is formed)
工藝流程之九:鑄造(上一道工序的中空陶殼被放入燒結爐依不同金屬材料以1000℃-1150℃燒結,將銅液立刻鑄入陶殼,冷卻后將外層陶殼震破,剝離出來的就是銅質的產品粗胚體)
Process flow 9: Casting (the hollow ceramic shell of the previous process is put into the sintering furnace to be sintered at 1000 ℃ - 1150 ℃ according to different metal materials, the copper liquid is immediately cast into the ceramic shell, the outer ceramic shell is broken after cooling, and the rough embryo of the copper product is stripped out)
工藝流程之十:產品鑄件修整及處理(對鑄造出來的銅產品作噴砂及清潔,并作切割,研磨、熱處理、整形、機加工、拋光等處理)
Process flow 10: product casting finishing and treatment (sandblast and clean the cast copper products, and cut, grind, heat treatment, shaping, machining, polishing and other final treatment)
工藝流程之十一:表面效果處理及保護(在產品表面處理需要的效果,通常有冷作色和熱作色之分,具體的作色區分及特點,再做打蠟保護及拋光)
11. Process flow: surface effect treatment and protection (the effect required for product surface treatment usually includes cold color and hot color, specific color distinction and characteristics, and finally wax protection and polishing)

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